The market price of a bond is the present value of all expected future interest and principal payments of the bond discounted at the bond 's yield to maturity, or rate of return.Because of this mechanism, bond prices move inversely with interest rates.

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To be free from these covenants, the issuer can repay the bonds early, but only at a high cost.An alternative process for bond issuance, which is commonly used for smaller issues and avoids this cost, is the private placement bond.This was called a tap issue or bond tap.

However, the presence of Z-bonds also makes the senior tranches more secure - after all, those tranches (and their investors) get the Z- bond 's payments first.The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company.The most common types of bonds include municipal bonds and corporate bonds.